Frederic Laloux, in his book _Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness_ defines different types of organizations over history.
He uses a color scheme to define these different stages. Red, for the "Wolf Pack" model, based on tribal management, Amber for the "Army" model of hierarchical management, Orange for the "Machine" model of engineered management, Green for the "Family" model of management and Teal, for a new "Living Organism" model of control.
Teal organizations have three defining characteristics:
>• Self-management. Teal organizations operate effectively, even at a large scale, with a system based on peer relationships. They set up structures and practices in which people have high autonomy in their domain, and are accountable for coordinating with others. Power and control are deeply embedded throughout the organizations, no longer tied to the specific positions of a few top leaders. > • Wholeness. Whereas Orange and Green organizations encourage people to show only their narrow “professional” selves, Teal organizations invite people to reclaim their inner wholeness. They create an environment wherein people feel free to fully express themselves, bringing unprecedented levels of energy, passion, and creativity to work. > • Evolutionary purpose. Teal organizations base their strategies on what they sense the world is asking from them. Agile practices that sense and respond replace the machinery of plans, budgets, targets, and incentives. Paradoxically, by focusing less on the bottom line and shareholder value, they generate financial results that outpace those of competitors. > source
YOUTUBE GxGGkrtKZaA Summary from Laloux
The issues Woods has been exploring with complex adaptive systems appear to directly relate to the challenge of managing Loloux's Teal-type organizations.